wiki:expansion/gw16126

Version 9 (modified by Cale Collins, 9 months ago) (diff)

fixed typo in example

GW16126 miniPCIe BLE / LTE Cat-M1 modem

The GW16126 is a miniPCIe form-factor card that features both a BLE 5.0 radio and a Cat-M1 modem designed for the IoT market.

The GW16126 interfaces with a host over USB 2.0 and uses the following pins on the miniPCIe card edge:

  • GND: pin 4,9,15,18,21,26,27,29,34,35,40,43,50
  • VDD_3P3: pin 2,24,39,41,52
  • USB_DM: pin 36
  • USB_DP: pin 38

Power draw varies greatly with the activity of the LTE Cat-M1 modem but typically varies between the milliwatt range to a max of around 2W

On the USB bus the following are present:

  • USB2514 USB 2.0 2-port HUB
    • FT231X USB UART connected to a u-blox NINA-B30x BLE module
    • u-blox NINA-B301 BLE module USB 2.0 controller
    • u-blox SARA-R4 Cat M-1 / NB1 modem with nano-SIM socket

These look like the following with lsusb:

ID 05c6:90b2 Qualcomm, Inc. 
ID 0403:6015 Future Technology Devices International, Ltd Bridge(I2C/SPI/UART/FIFO)
ID 0424:2514 Standard Microsystems Corp. USB 2.0 Hub

The following devices will be created by the kernel modules:

  • /dev/ttyUSB0 (hci_uart) (CONFIG_BT_HCIUART, CONFIG_BT_HCIUART_H4 hci_uart)
  • /dev/ttyUSB1 (qcdm) (CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_OPTION option)
  • /dev/ttyUSB2 (at) (CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_OPTION option)
  • /dev/cdc-wdm0 (qmi) (CONFIG_USB_NET_QMI_WWAN qmi_wwan)
  • /sys/class/net/wwan0 (net) (CONFIG_USB_NET_QMI_WWAN qmi_wwan)

The drivers do not add the modem device ID (05c6:90b2) until mainline kernel 4.17.

If for some reason you don't have all the drivers enabled above or have them static, you may find the /dev/ttyUSB devices enumerate in a different order. You can use a variety of ways to determine which device is which:

  • mmcli -m 0 will report details about detected modems and what devices they are on
  • ls -d /sys/bus/usb/drivers/ftdi_sio/*/ttyUSB* will tell you which tty is attached to the ftdi_sio driver to attach the Bluetooth HCI_UART to
  • ls -d /sys/bus/usb/drivers/option/*/ttyUSB* will tell you which tty's are attached to the option driver for the modem.

u-blox SARA-R4 LTE Cat M-1 modem

The u-blox SARA-R410M-52B LTE Cat M1 modem supports M1 bands 2,4,5,12,13. For more info on the CATM1 standard and use cases see the following CATM1 Explained Link.

The modem features a Qualcomm chipset that uses the 'option' and 'qmi_wwan' Linux drivers providing the following devices:

  • /dev/ttyUSB1 (qcdm)
  • /dev/ttyUSB2
  • /dev/cdc-wdm0 (qmi)
  • /sys/class/net/wwan0 (net)

The modem is supported by Linux ModemManager and libqmi-utils.

General modem information that should be understood is located on the Gateworks Modem Wiki Page

Note, because this modem uses raw-ip, DHCP does not work and a IP will not automatically be applied to the interface. The provider will give an IP and then it must manually be applied to the wwan0 interface.

Examples: (set APN env var appropriately)

  • Ubuntu using NetworkManager:
    root@xenial-newport:~# nmcli --version
    nmcli tool, version 1.2.6
    root@xenial-newport:~# nmcli connection down id 'Wired connection 1'
    Connection 'Wired connection 1' successfully deactivated (D-Bus active path: /org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/ActiveConnection/0)
    root@xenial-newport:~# nmcli connection add type gsm ifname cdc-wdm0 con-name mymodem apn $APN
    Connection 'mymodem' (1c6d1b7f-2c89-4e21-93ee-231073605578) successfully added.
    root@xenial-newport:~# nmcli connection up id mymodem 
    Connection successfully activated (D-Bus active path: /org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/ActiveConnection/3)
    root@xenial-newport:~# ifconfig wwan0
    wwan0     Link encap:UNSPEC  HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00  
              inet addr:100.75.76.187  P-t-P:100.75.76.187  Mask:255.255.255.248
              UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
              RX packets:581 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
              TX packets:676 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
              collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
              RX bytes:354005 (354.0 KB)  TX bytes:54090 (54.0 KB)
    
    root@xenial-newport:~# ping -c2 www.google.com
    PING www.google.com (216.58.192.196) 56(84) bytes of data.
    64 bytes from ord30s25-in-f196.1e100.net (216.58.192.196): icmp_seq=1 ttl=52 time=568 ms
    64 bytes from ord30s25-in-f196.1e100.net (216.58.192.196): icmp_seq=2 ttl=52 time=188 ms
    
    --- www.google.com ping statistics ---
    2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1000ms
    rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 188.688/378.624/568.561/189.937 ms
    
  • Ubuntu using ModemManager:
    root@xenial-newport:~# mmcli --modem 0
    
    /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0 (device id '5cbc1489609fb1b95308ccf41b45f14e0f57771d')
      -------------------------
      Hardware |   manufacturer: 'u-blox'
               |          model: 'SARA-R410M-52B'
               |       revision: 'L0.0.00.00.06.05  1  [Aug 01 2018 14:05:07]'
               |   H/W revision: '10000'
               |      supported: 'lte'
               |        current: 'lte'
               |   equipment id: '357812090840163'
      -------------------------
      System   |         device: '/sys/devices/platform/soc@0/848000000000.pci/pci0000:00/0000:00:10.0/usb1/1-1/1-1.3/1-1.3.3'
               |        drivers: 'option1, qmi_wwan'
               |         plugin: 'Generic'
               |   primary port: 'cdc-wdm0'
               |          ports: 'ttyUSB0 (qcdm), ttyUSB1 (at), cdc-wdm0 (qmi), wwan0 (net)'
      -------------------------
      Numbers  |           own : '16127498744'
      -------------------------
      Status   |           lock: 'sim-pin2'
               | unlock retries: 'sim-pin (3), sim-pin2 (3), sim-puk (10), sim-puk2 (10)'
               |          state: 'disabled'
               |    power state: 'on'
               |    access tech: 'unknown'
               | signal quality: '0' (cached)
      -------------------------
      Modes    |      supported: 'allowed: 4g; preferred: none'
               |        current: 'allowed: 4g; preferred: none'
      -------------------------
      Bands    |      supported: 'eutran-1, eutran-2, eutran-3, eutran-4, eutran-5, eutran-8, eutran-12, eutran-13, eutran-17, eutran-18, eutran-19, eutran-20, eutran-39'
               |        current: 'eutran-1, eutran-2, eutran-3, eutran-4, eutran-5, eutran-8, eutran-12, eutran-13, eutran-17, eutran-18, eutran-19, eutran-20, eutran-39'
      -------------------------
      IP       |      supported: 'ipv4, ipv6, ipv4v6'
      -------------------------
      3GPP     |           imei: '357812090840163'
               |  enabled locks: 'none'
               |    operator id: 'unknown'
               |  operator name: 'unknown'
               |   subscription: 'unknown'
               |   registration: 'unknown'
               |    EPS UE mode: 'csps-2'
      -------------------------
      SIM      |           path: '/org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/SIM/0'
    
      -------------------------
      Bearers  |          paths: 'none'
    
    root@xenial-newport:~# mmcli --modem 0 | grep imei
      3GPP     |           imei: '357812090840163'
    root@xenial-newport:~# mmcli --modem 0 --enable
    successfully enabled the modem
    root@xenial-newport:~# mmcli --modem 0 --simple-connect="apn=$APN" # Note 'CallFailed' is likely an invalid APN
    successfully connected the modem
    root@xenial-newport:~# mmcli --modem 0 --bearer 0
    Bearer '/org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Bearer/0'
      -------------------------
      Status             |   connected: 'yes'
                         |   suspended: 'no'
                         |   interface: 'wwan0'
                         |  IP timeout: '20'
      -------------------------
      Properties         |         apn: 'NIMBLINK.GW12.VZWENTP'
                         |     roaming: 'allowed'
                         |     IP type: 'none'
                         |        user: 'none'
                         |    password: 'none'
                         |      number: 'none'
                         | Rm protocol: 'unknown'
      -------------------------
      IPv4 configuration |   method: 'static'
                         |  address: '100.75.76.187'
                         |   prefix: '29'
                         |  gateway: '100.75.76.188'
                         |      DNS: '198.224.182.135', '198.224.183.135'
                         |      MTU: '1428'
      -------------------------
      IPv6 configuration |   method: 'unknown'
      -------------------------
      Stats              |          Duration: '0'
                         |    Bytes received: 'N/A'
                         | Bytes transmitted: 'N/A'
    root@xenial-newport:~# ifdown eth0
    Killed old client process
    Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client 4.3.3
    Copyright 2004-2015 Internet Systems Consortium.
    All rights reserved.
    For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/
    
    Listening on LPF/eth0/00:d0:12:0f:f5:83
    Sending on   LPF/eth0/00:d0:12:0f:f5:83
    Sending on   Socket/fallback
    DHCPRELEASE on eth0 to 172.24.0.2 port 67 (xid=0x3cab7268)
    Restarting ntp (via systemctl): ntp.service.
    root@xenial-newport:~# ifconfig wwan0 100.75.76.187/29
    root@xenial-newport:~# route add default gw 100.75.76.188
    root@xenial-newport:~# echo "nameserver 198.224.182.135" > /etc/resolv.conf
    root@xenial-newport:~# ping www.google.com
    root@xenial-newport:~# ping -c2 www.google.com
    PING www.google.com (216.58.192.196) 56(84) bytes of data.
    64 bytes from ord30s25-in-f196.1e100.net (216.58.192.196): icmp_seq=1 ttl=52 time=568 ms
    64 bytes from ord30s25-in-f196.1e100.net (216.58.192.196): icmp_seq=2 ttl=52 time=188 ms
    
    --- www.google.com ping statistics ---
    2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1000ms
    rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 188.688/378.624/568.561/189.937 ms
    
  • Ubuntu using libqmi only (no NetworkManager or ModemManager)
    root@xenial-newport:~# qmicli --version
    
    qmicli 1.20.2
    Copyright (C) 2012-2018 Aleksander Morgado
    License GPLv2+: GNU GPL version 2 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html>
    This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
    There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
    
    root@xenial-newport:~# systemctl stop NetworkManager # don't conflict with NetworkManager
    root@xenial-newport:~# systemctl stop ModemManager # don't conflict with ModemManager
    root@xenial-newport:~# ifdown eth0 # bring down eth0 so not confused for WAN/LAN link.
    root@xenial-newport:~# cat << EOF > /etc/qmi-network.conf
    > APN=$APN
    > PROXY=yes
    > EOF
    root@xenial-newport:~# qmicli -p -d /dev/cdc-wdm0 --wda-set-data-format=raw-ip
    [/dev/cdc-wdm0] Successfully set data format
                            QoS flow header: no
                        Link layer protocol: 'raw-ip'
           Uplink data aggregation protocol: 'disabled'
         Downlink data aggregation protocol: 'disabled'
                              NDP signature: '0'
    Downlink data aggregation max datagrams: '0'
         Downlink data aggregation max size: '0'
    root@xenial-newport:~# qmicli -p -d /dev/cdc-wdm0 --set-expected-data-format=raw-ip
    [/dev/cdc-wdm0] expected data format set to: raw-ip
    root@xenial-newport:~# qmi-network /dev/cdc-wdm0 start
    Loading profile at /etc/qmi-network.conf...
        APN: NIMBLINK.GW12.VZWENTP
        APN user: unset
        APN password: unset
        qmi-proxy: yes
    Checking data format with 'qmicli -d /dev/cdc-wdm0 --wda-get-data-format --device-open-proxy'...
    Device link layer protocol retrieved: raw-ip
    Getting expected data format with 'qmicli -d /dev/cdc-wdm0 --get-expected-data-format'...
    Expected link layer protocol retrieved: raw-ip
    Device and kernel link layer protocol match: raw-ip
    Starting network with 'qmicli -d /dev/cdc-wdm0 --wds-start-network=apn='NIMBLINK.GW12.VZWENTP'  --client-no-release-cid --device-open-proxy'...
    Saving state at /tmp/qmi-network-state-cdc-wdm0... (CID: 4)
    Saving state at /tmp/qmi-network-state-cdc-wdm0... (PDH: 2194536080)
    Network started successfully
    root@xenial-newport:~# qmicli --device /dev/cdc-wdm0 --wds-get-current-settings
    [/dev/cdc-wdm0] Current settings retrieved:
               IP Family: IPv4
            IPv4 address: 100.75.76.187
        IPv4 subnet mask: 255.255.255.248
    IPv4 gateway address: 100.75.76.188
        IPv4 primary DNS: 198.224.182.135
      IPv4 secondary DNS: 198.224.183.135
                     MTU: 1428
                 Domains: none
    root@xenial-newport:~# ifconfig wwan0 100.22.44.187 netmask 255.255.255.248 # assign IP 
    root@xenial-newport:~# route add default gw 100.75.76.188 wwan0 # assign route
    root@xenial-newport:~# echo "nameserver 198.224.182.135" > /etc/resolv.conf # assign nameserver
    

u-blox NINA-B301 BLE module

The u-blox NINA-B301 stand-alone Bluetooth 5 low engery module contains an open Nordic nRF52840 multiprotocol SoC.

Bluetooth HCI (GW16126)

The standard GW16126 comes the nRF52840 pre-programmed by Gateworks with Zephyr Project hci_uart offering a bluetooth HCI UART host controller. The Open-Source Zephyr Project provides a small scalable real-time operating system (RTOS) well suited for small ARM processors such as the one in the nRF52840 and its hci_uart sample code implements a BLE HCI via the H4 UART protocol with the following:

  • 1mbps baudrate
  • 8bits, no parity, 1 stop bit
  • hardware flow control required

To use the GW16126 bluetooth HCI with Linux you need the following:

  • Linux 4.10+ kernel with the following:
    • FTDI UART support (CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_FTDI_SIO)
    • HCI UART with H4 (CONFIG_BT_HCIUART and CONFIG_BT_HCIUART_H4) in order to provide a bluetooth HCI over UART
    • crypto userspace API (CONFIG_CRYPTO_USER, CONFIG_CRYPTO_USER_API_AEAD, CONFIG_CRYPTO_USER_API_HASH, CONFIG_CRYPTO_USER_API_RNG, CONFIG_CRYPTO_USER_API_SKCIPHER) in order to generate a random Bluetooth MAC (BDADDR)
  • Bluetooth stack such as BlueZ (4.45+)

The following shows how you would interact with the BLE controller via BlueZ on Ubuntu bionic:

apt-get install bluez
# configure bluez to run expirimental features
sed -i '/^ExecStart=/ s/$/ -E/' /lib/systemd/system/bluetooth.service 
# restart bluetoothd
sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart bluetooth
# attach HCI UART
dev=$(basename $(ls -d /sys/bus/usb/drivers/ftdi_sio/*/ttyUSB*))
modprobe hci_uart
btattach -B /dev/$dev -S 1000000 -P h4 &
# scan for BLE devices
hcitool -i hci0 lescan

Example:

root@bionic-newport:~# echo 8 > /proc/sys/kernel/printk
root@bionic-newport:~# dev=$(basename $(ls -d /sys/bus/usb/drivers/ftdi_sio/*/ttyUSB*))
root@bionic-newport:~# modprobe hci_uart
[   35.314383] Bluetooth: Core ver 2.22
[   35.318121] NET: Registered protocol family 31
[   35.322614] Bluetooth: HCI device and connection manager initialized
[   35.328997] Bluetooth: HCI socket layer initialized
[   35.333904] Bluetooth: L2CAP socket layer initialized
[   35.338983] Bluetooth: SCO socket layer initialized
[   35.350560] Bluetooth: HCI UART driver ver 2.3
[   35.355057] Bluetooth: HCI UART protocol H4 registered
root@bionic-newport:~# btattach -B /dev/$dev -S 1000000 -P h4 &
[1] 2138
Attaching Primary controller to /dev/ttyUSB0
Switched line discipline from 0 to 15
Device index 0 attached
[   57.834717] Bluetooth: BNEP (Ethernet Emulation) ver 1.3
[   57.840137] Bluetooth: BNEP socket layer initialized
root@bionic-newport:~# hciconfig 
hci0:   Type: Primary  Bus: UART
        BD Address: 00:00:00:00:00:00  ACL MTU: 27:7  SCO MTU: 0:0
        UP RUNNING 
        RX bytes:527 acl:0 sco:0 events:41 errors:0
        TX bytes:258 acl:0 sco:0 commands:41 errors:0

root@bionic-newport:~# hcitool -i hci0 lescan
LE Scan ...
3C:A3:08:10:51:FE (unknown)
FC:B4:88:8E:32:61 (unknown)
FC:B4:88:8E:32:61 (unknown)
3C:A3:08:10:51:FE LEDBlue-081051FE 

Zephyr Project Firmware

While the nRF52840 comes pre-programmed with firmware to make it a fully featured Bluetooth HCI you could develop your own firmware and re-program it if desired.

The Zephyr Project is a scaleable real-time operating system (RTOS) supporting multiple hardware architectures, optimized for resource constrained devices, and built with security in mind. The Zephyr Project supports the Nordic nRF58240 within the u-blox NINA-B3 BLE module and can be modified to give it a personality of its own. Some examples within the Zephyr Project that are suited for the GW16123 out of the box are:

  • HCI uart
  • BLE beacon

Gateworks has added GW16126 board support to Zephyr here via commit ba5f00ad

Examples:

  1. Install Zephyr source
    git clone https://github.com/Gateworks/zephyr.git
    cd ~/zephyr  # or to your directory where zephyr is cloned
    # install more requirements via pip
    pip3 install --user -r scripts/requirements.txt
    
  2. Build HCI UART (what Gateworks pre-programms into the GW16126):
    # setup shell for building Zephyr
    source zephyr-env.sh:
    cd $ZEPHYR_BASE/samples/bluetooth/hci_uart
    mkdir -p build/gw16126 && cd build/gw16126
    cmake -DBOARD=nrf52840_gw16126 ../..
    make
    ls zephyr/zephyr.hex
    
  3. Build Bluetooth Beacon:
    # setup shell for building Zephyr
    source zephyr-env.sh:
    cd $ZEPHYR_BASE/samples/bluetooth/beacon
    mkdir -p build/gw16126 && cd build/gw16126
    cmake -DBOARD=nrf52840_gw16126 ../..
    make
    ls zephyr/zephyr.hex
    

Programming the nRF58240

While the nRF52840 comes pre-programmed with firmware to make it a fully featured Bluetooth HCI you could develop your own firmware and re-program it if desired. The device can be programmed via SWD using the FT231X CBUS pins as follows:

  • CBUS1 - SWDIO
  • CBUS2 - SWDCLK

To program you can use OpenOCD with the sysfsgpio interface as long as you have a kernel that supports GPIO in the ftdi-sio driver (Linux 4.20+).

The following will create a gw16126.cfg OpenOCD interface file specifying SWD and mapping the SWCLK/SWDIO pins to the FT231X CBUS2/CBUS1 pins:

  1. Create an OpenOCD interface file for the GW16126 that defines the Linux gpio signals for SWD:
    base=$(for i in $(ls -1d /sys/class/gpio/gpiochip*); do [ "ftdi-cbus" = "$(cat $i/label)" ] && cat $i/base; done)
    [ "$base" ] || { echo "Error: could not find ftdi-cbus device - Linux 4.20+ required"; }
    cat << EOF > gw16126.cfg
    interface sysfsgpio
    transport select swd
    Show quoted text
    sysfsgpio_swd_nums $((base + 2)) $((base + 1))
    EOF
    
  2. Build OpenOCD from git master for nRF52840 support:
    apt-get install build-essential git flex bison pkg-config libtool autoconf automake texinfo libusb-1.0-0-dev
    git clone git://git.code.sf.net/p/openocd/code openocd
    cd openocd
    ./bootstrap
    ./configure --enable-sysfsgpio
    make install
    
    • alternatively you can fetch from a zip archive via {{{wget --no-check-certificate

https://repo.or.cz/openocd.git/snapshot/refs/heads/master.zip}}} but note that the bootstrap script which checkout jimtcl as git submodules so this doesn't really help

  • I've been having issues on bionic because NTP isn't working right which leads to certificate issues. You can disable by git config --global http.sslverify false
  1. Program firmware:
    # openocd -f gw16126.cfg -f target/nrf52.cfg \
       -c init -c "reset init" -c halt -c "nrf5 mass_erase" -c "program zephyr_uart_hci.hex verify" -c reset -c exit
    Open On-Chip Debugger 0.10.0+dev-00563-gda4b2d5b (2018-10-20-01:03)
    Licensed under GNU GPL v2
    For bug reports, read
            http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html
    SysfsGPIO nums: swclk = 462, swdio = 461
    adapter speed: 1000 kHz
    cortex_m reset_config sysresetreq
    Info : SysfsGPIO JTAG/SWD bitbang driver
    Info : SWD only mode enabled (specify tck, tms, tdi and tdo gpios to add JTAG mode)
    Info : This adapter doesn't support configurable speed
    Info : SWD DPIDR 0x2ba01477
    Info : nrf52.cpu: hardware has 6 breakpoints, 4 watchpoints
    Info : Listening on port 3333 for gdb connections
    target halted due to debug-request, current mode: Thread
    xPSR: 0x01000000 pc: 0xfffffffe msp: 0xfffffffc
    Info : nRF52840-QIAA(build code: C0) 1024kB Flash
    target halted due to debug-request, current mode: Thread
    xPSR: 0x01000000 pc: 0xfffffffe msp: 0xfffffffc
    ** Programming Started **
    auto erase enabled
    Warn : using fast async flash loader. This is currently supported
    Warn : only with ST-Link and CMSIS-DAP. If you have issues, add
    Warn : "set WORKAREASIZE 0" before sourcing nrf51.cfg/nrf52.cfg to disable it
    wrote 49152 bytes from file zephyr.hex in 117.544823s (0.408 KiB/s)
    ** Programming Finished **
    ** Verify Started **
    verified 47036 bytes in 2.723827s (16.864 KiB/s)
    ** Verified OK **
    

u-blox Connectivity Software (GW16126-SP399)

The GW16126-SP399 comes with the nRF52840 pre-programmed (and locked) by u-blox with the u-blox Connectivity Software.

Connection parameters:

  • 115200baud, 8 data bits no stop bit

Protocol details:

Examples:

  • Serial port interaction
    # query configured role
    AT+UBTLE?
    +UBTLE:2
    OK
    
    # set to central
    AT+UBTLE=1
    OK
    
    # store and power cycle
    AT&W
    OK
    AT+CPWROFF
    OK
    
    +STARTUP
    
    # report scan results
    AT+UBTD
    
    +UBTD:FCB4888E3261r,-76,"",2,0201061AFF4C0002156445C351577C4DA9AE12E57657E78C6F0000000000
    +UBTD:FCB4888E3261r,-77,"",1,
    OK
    
  • command line usage:
    dev=$(basename $(ls -d /sys/bus/usb/drivers/ftdi_sio/*/ttyUSB*))
    stty -F $dev 115200 ignbrk -brkint -icrnl -opost -onlcr -isig -icanon -iexten -echo -echoe -echok -echoctl -echoke
    cat $dev & # continually display responses from tty in background
    # request manufactuer identify
    printf 'AT+GMI\r\n' > $dev
    # request model
    printf 'AT+GMM\r\n' > $dev
    # request serial number
    printf 'AT+GSN\r\n' > $dev
    # request misc details
    printf 'AT+ATI0\r\n' > $dev
    # change role to central, write nvram, and reset
    printf 'AT+UBTLE=1\r\n' > $dev
    printf 'AT&W\r\n' > $dev
    printf 'AT+CPWROFF\r\n' > $dev
    # scan for BLE devices
    sleep 1
    printf 'AT+UBTD\r\n' > $dev
    

See also ublox s-center software for use on Windows

Software Support

In General, the following software is necessary for the GW16126:

  • LTE Cat-M1 modem:
    • Linux 4.17+ kernel with option driver (CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_OPTION) and qmi driver (CONFIG_USB_NET_QMI_WWAN)
      • Linux 4.5+ needed for QMI RAW IP support (unless backported)
      • Linux 4.17+ needed for ublox R410M (unless backported)
  • BLE HCI:
    • Linux 4.5+ kernel
    • hci_uart driver (CONFIG_BT_HCIUART, CONFIG_BT_HCIUART_H4 hci_uart)
    • Userspace cryptographic algorithm support (CONFIG_CRYPTO_USER_API*) (for generation of random bdaddr in BlueZ)
    • Bluetooth stack such as BlueZ (4.45+ with Experimental support (-E param on bluetoothd))

Ubuntu:

  • LTE Cat-M1 modem: requires network-manager modemmanager libqmi
  • BLE HCI: requires bluez
  • fully supported (with the above)

OpenWrt 18.6.1:

  • requires kmod-usb-net-opton, kmod-usb-net-qmi-wwan, kmod-usb-serial, kmod-usb-serial-ftdi, kmod-usb-serial-qualcomm, kmod-bluetooth, kmod-crypto-user, kmod-crypto-hash, bluez-daemon, uqmi
  • fully supported (with the above)

OpenWrt 16.02:

  • will not work without backporting qmi raw-ip support and modem ID's to option1/qmi-wwan driver

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