Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of gsc/alternate_boot_device

10/22/2017 05:28:45 AM (5 years ago)



  • gsc/alternate_boot_device

    v1 v1  
     2          <div id="wikipage" class="trac-content"><p>
     3</p><div class="wiki-toc">
     5  <li>
     6    <a href="#AlternateBootDevice">Alternate Boot Device</a>
     7    <ol>
     8      <li>
     9        <ol>
     10          <li>
     11            <a href="#FlashMapping">Flash Mapping</a>
     12          </li>
     13        </ol>
     14      </li>
     15      <li>
     16        <a href="#AutoSwitchBootDevice">Auto Switch Boot Device</a>
     17        <ol>
     18          <li>
     19            <a href="#FromLinux">From Linux</a>
     20          </li>
     21          <li>
     22            <a href="#Fromu-boot">From u-boot</a>
     23          </li>
     24        </ol>
     25      </li>
     26      <li>
     27        <a href="#AlternateBootFlashfirmwareimages">Alternate Boot Flash firmware images</a>
     28        <ol>
     29          <li>
     30            <a href="#Step1.Bootloader">Step 1. Bootloader</a>
     31          </li>
     32          <li>
     33            <a href="#Step2.KernelRootFilesystem">Step 2. Kernel / Root Filesystem</a>
     34          </li>
     35          <li>
     36            <a href="#Usingu-boot-2014.10-cns3xxxbootloader">Using u-boot-2014.10-cns3xxx bootloader</a>
     37          </li>
     38        </ol>
     39      </li>
     40    </ol>
     41  </li>
     45<h1 id="AlternateBootDevice">Alternate Boot Device</h1>
     47Some Gateworks Laguna family products have an 'Alternate boot device' that can be used for alternate firmware images, such as a flash recovery image.
     50Please note that if you have a board with a 4MB SPI flash device, such as the GW2388-4 you will need to use <a class="ext-link" href=""><span class="icon">​</span>u-boot-2014.10 cns3xxx</a> bootloader.
     53There are 2 ways that you can instruct the '<a class="wiki" href="/wiki/gsc">Gateworks System Controller</a>' to boot to the <strong>alternate boot device (an SPI FLASH device) vs the primary boot device (a NOR FLASH device)</strong>:
     55<ol><li>set GSC R0.3 and press the user pushbutton 5x times to perform a 1-time hard reboot to the alternate boot device
     56<pre class="wiki">i2cset -f -y 0 0x20 0 0x08
     57</pre></li><li>set GSC R1.6 (SWITCH_BOOT_ENABLE) to enable 'switch boot check'. If this is set when the board powers on, it will 'toggle' boot device selection and reboot after 30 seconds unless GSC R1.7 (SWITCH_BOOT_CLEAR) has been set before that time. Note that the countdown timer is only activated when the board powers on from a GSC sleep or unpowered state
     58</li></ol><h3 id="FlashMapping">Flash Mapping</h3>
     60This is an example from a Laguna 2388 with 16MB NOR and 4MB SPI. The mapping is set by us but can be changed.
     62<pre class="wiki">root@(none):/# cat /proc/mtd
     63dev:    size   erasesize  name
     64mtd0: 00040000 00020000 "uboot"
     65mtd1: 00020000 00020000 "params"
     66mtd2: 00200000 00020000 "kernel"
     67mtd3: 00da0000 00020000 "rootfs"
     68mtd4: 007c0000 00020000 "rootfs_data"
     69mtd5: 00040000 00010000 "uboot"
     70mtd6: 00040000 00010000 "params"
     71mtd7: 00180000 00010000 "kernel"
     72mtd8: 00200000 00010000 "rootfs"
     74</pre><h2 id="AutoSwitchBootDevice">Auto Switch Boot Device</h2>
     76The <a class="wiki" href="/wiki/gsc">Gateworks System Controller</a> implements an 'Auto Switch Boot Device' feature that can be useful as a firmware recovery mechanism. GSC register R1.6 (SWITCH_BOOT_ENABLE) enables this mode. When this is set and the board powers on it will initiate a countdown timer that expires in 30 seconds. Writing a 1 to GSC R1.7 (SWITCH_BOOT_CLEAR) will cancel this timer. If the timer expires the boot device will be 'toggled' and the board will be hard reset.
     79If you need to progamattically hard power cycle the board you can put it to sleep for a few seconds.
     81<h3 id="FromLinux">From Linux</h3>
     83Within the linux command-line shell, you can use i2cset from the i2c-tools package.
     86To enable 'switch boot check':
     88<pre class="wiki">i2cset -f -y 0 0x20 1 0x40      ;# enable R1.6 (SWITCH_BOOT_ENABLE)
     90To assert 'SWITCH_BOOT_CLEAR' and cancel the countdown timer (within 30 seconds of power up):
     92<pre class="wiki">i2cset -f -y 0 0x20 1 0xC0      ;# cancel countdown by asserting R1.7 (SWITCH_BOOT_CLEAR) but keep enabled R1.6 (SWITCH_BOOT_ENABLE)
     93# or
     94i2cset -f -y 0 0x20 1 0x80      ;# cancel countdown by asserting R1.7 (SWITCH_BOOT_CLEAR) and disable R1.6 (SWITCH_BOOT_ENABLE)
     96To programatically hard power-cycle the board by putting it to sleep for a few seconds while also enabling 'switch boot':
     98<pre class="wiki"># power cycle board: must be a hard power cycle, not a soft reboot (which can be done manually or via sleep/wake timer control)
     99i2cset -f -y 0 0x20 6 5         ;# write add timer to 5sec
     100i2cset -f -y 0 0x20 7 0
     101i2cset -f -y 0 0x20 8 0
     102i2cset -f -y 0 0x20 9 0
     103i2cset -f -y 0 0x20 1 0x04      ;# set add time bit (must be a separate i2c transaction than activating sleep)
     104i2cset -f -y 0 0x20 1 0x43      ;# enable R1.6 (SWITCH_BOOT_ENABLE), sleep operation (R1.0) and activate sleep (R1.1)
     105# wait for board to reboot into linux and within 30 seconds of powerup cancel the boot timer
     106i2cset -f -y 0 0x20 1 0xC0      ;# set R1.7 (SWITCH_BOOT_CLEAR) to cancel timer but leave R1.6 (SWITCH_BOOT_ENABLE) enabled
     107</pre><h3 id="Fromu-boot">From u-boot</h3>
     109Within the u-boot environment you can use the imw command to set i2c registers.
     112To enable 'switch boot check':
     114<pre class="wiki">Laguna &gt; imw 0x20 1 0x40 1     ;# enable R1.6 (SWITCH_BOOT_ENABLE)
     116To assert R1.7 (SWITCH_BOOT_CLEAR) and cancel the countdown timer (within 30 seconds of power up):
     118<pre class="wiki">Laguna &gt; imw 0x20 1 0xc0 1  # set SWITCH_BOOT_CLEAR (R1.7)
     120To programatically hard power-cycle the board by putting it to sleep for a few seconds while also enabling 'switch boot':
     122<pre class="wiki">Laguna &gt; imw 0x20 6 0x05 1  # LSB (5 secs)
     123Laguna &gt; imw 0x20 7 0x00 1
     124Laguna &gt; imw 0x20 8 0x00 1
     125Laguna &gt; imw 0x20 9 0x00 1  # MSB
     126Laguna &gt; imw 0x20 1 0x04 1  # latch R6-R9 and add to RTC
     127Laguna &gt; imw 0x20 1 0x43 1  # set SWITCH_BOOT_ENABLE (R1.6), sleep operation (R1.0) and activate sleep (R1.1)
     128</pre><h2 id="AlternateBootFlashfirmwareimages">Alternate Boot Flash firmware images</h2>
     129<h3 id="Step1.Bootloader">Step 1. Bootloader</h3>
     131The alternate boot device and the primary boot device require different bootloaders <strong>(SPI vs NOR FLASH)</strong>. Only the primary boot device is programmed with a bootable image by Gateworks. In order to program the alternate boot device you will need to do so from Linux (as u-boot-nor.bin on the primary boot device without modification can only access NOR flash).
     134<strong>REQUIRED: You will also need to modify your Linux kernel to allow writing to the u-boot partition of SPI flash by commenting out the '.mask_flags = MTD_WRITEABLE' in the laguna_spi_partitions structure in:</strong>
     138/gateworks-openwrt/trunk$ vi build_dir/target-arm_v6k_uClibc-
     142Once modified, recompile the BSP. Then flash this to the NOR flash on your board.
     145Once booted to NOR flash with this modified kernel you can write the laguna u-boot-spi.bin to /dev/mtd5 via mtd:
     147<pre class="wiki">root@OpenWrt:/# mtd write u-boot_spi.bin /dev/mtd5
     148Unlocking /dev/mtd5 ...
     150Writing from u-boot_spi.bin to /dev/mtd5 ...     
     153Now you can follow the instructions above to boot off the <strong>Alternate Boot Device</strong> (SPI Flash) and setup your kernel/rootfs using the instructions for an SPI FLASH device such as the GW2380 found here <a class="wiki" href="/wiki/laguna/openwrt">here</a>
     155<h3 id="Step2.KernelRootFilesystem">Step 2. Kernel / Root Filesystem</h3>
     157Depending on the size of the SPI FLASH you will likely <strong>need to prune features from your kernel/filesystem</strong>. A good starting point may be the Laguna <a class="ext-link" href=""><span class="icon">​</span>test_config</a> file which uses a ramdisk and a minimal set of utilities used by Gateworks to test boards. As this <a class="wiki" href="/wiki/OpenWrt">OpenWrt</a> config file specifies an INTRAMFS ramdisk, you only need to flash the kernel which includes the root filesystem.
     159<ol><li>Use the instructions above to boot from the <strong>Alternate Boot Device</strong> (SPI FLASH) and break out into the bootloader. You can determine that you are booted to the <strong>Alternate Boot Device</strong> by seeing a smaller FLASH size in the boot header or by looking at the output of 'printenv bootcmd' and seeing that it boots a kernel from 0x60080000 (SPI FLASH) instead of 0x10080000 (NOR FLASH)
     160<pre class="wiki">...
     161Hit any key to stop autoboot:  0
     162Laguna&gt; printenv bootcmd
     163bootcmd=bootm 0x60080000
     164</pre></li></ol><ol start="2"><li>set R1.7 (SWITCH_BOOT_CLEAR) so that you have plenty of time to write the kernel to the SPI Flash:
     165<pre class="wiki">Laguna &gt; imw 0x20 1 0xc0 1  # set SWITCH_BOOT_CLEAR (R1.7)
     166</pre></li></ol><ol start="3"><li>set ipaddr/serverip according to your network. For example if your server is at and your target is to be
     167<pre class="wiki">Laguna&gt; sete ipaddr
     168Laguna&gt; sete serverip
     169</pre></li></ol><ol start="4"><li>Erase what is currently in the SPI FLASH: (This is a range, start and end for a specific flash size. Example 16MB SPI below)
     170<pre class="wiki">Laguna&gt; erase 0x60080000 0x60ffffff
     171</pre></li></ol><ol start="5"><li>Copy Kernel+Root-filesystem to the Board
     172<pre class="wiki">Laguna&gt; tftpboot 0x00800000 laguna/openwrt-cns3xxx-uImage_ramdisk
     173Laguna&gt; cp.b 0x00800000 0x60080000 $(filesize)
     174</pre></li></ol><ol start="6"><li>Set kernel commandline for booting a ramdisk:
     175<pre class="wiki">setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS0,115200 root=/dev/ram0 rootfstype=ramfs'
     177</pre></li></ol><ol start="7"><li>Boot into Linux<br />
     178<pre class="wiki">Laguna&gt; bootm
     182<ul><li>when using the SPI FLASH device you can erase the u-boot env flash section and restore factory defaults with:
     183<pre class="wiki">Laguna&gt; protect off 0x60040000 +0x40000
     184Laguna&gt; erase 0x60040000 +0x40000
     185Laguna&gt; reset
     186</pre></li></ul><h3 id="Usingu-boot-2014.10-cns3xxxbootloader">Using u-boot-2014.10-cns3xxx bootloader</h3>
     188If using the <a class="ext-link" href=""><span class="icon">​</span>u-boot-2014.10-cns3xxx</a> which supports both the 16MB and 4MB SPI flash devices used on Laguna products, you will need to use the 'sf' commands within uboot to access flash.
     191Update kernel:
     193<pre class="wiki">setenv serverip
     194setenv ipaddr
     195setenv spi_koffset 0x80000
     196setenv spi_klen 0x180000
     197setenv spi_roffset 0x200000
     198# update kernel
     199tftp ${loadaddr} laguna/openwrt-cns3xxx-uImage &amp;&amp; sf probe &amp;&amp; sf update ${loadaddr} ${spi_koffset} ${filesize}
     201Update SPI uboot:
     203<pre class="wiki"># update SPI uboot
     204setenv serverip
     205setenv ipaddr
     206tftp ${loadaddr} laguna/u-boot_spi.bin &amp;&amp; sf probe &amp;&amp; sf update ${loadaddr} 0 ${filesize}
     208Enable Alternate Boot timer:
     210<pre class="wiki">i2c mw 0x20 1 0x40 1 # set R1.6 SWITCH_BOOT_ENABLE
     212Clear Alternate Boot timer:
     214<pre class="wiki">i2c mw 0x20 1 0xc0 1 # set R1.7 SWITCH_BOOT_CLEAR