Changes between Version 1 and Version 2 of ventana/power


Ignore:
Timestamp:
01/10/2018 11:46:09 AM (3 months ago)
Author:
Tim Harvey
Comment:

convert restored html to wiki markup

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
Modified
  • ventana/power

    v1 v2  
    1 {{{#!html
    2           <div id="wikipage" class="trac-content"><p>
    3 </p><div class="wiki-toc">
    4 <ol>
    5   <li>
    6     <a href="#Concept">Concept</a>
    7   </li>
    8   <li>
    9     <a href="#PowerMeasurements"><b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b> Measurements</a>
    10     <ol>
    11       <li>
    12         <a href="#ProcessorDependentPowerUsage">Processor Dependent <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b> Usage</a>
    13       </li>
    14       <li>
    15         <a href="#PeripheralPowerTable">Peripheral <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b> Table</a>
    16       </li>
    17     </ol>
    18   </li>
    19   <li>
    20     <a href="#HowtoReducePower">How to Reduce <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b></a>
    21     <ol>
    22       <li>
    23         <a href="#IMX6internalLDOldo-bypassvsldo-enabled">IMX6 internal LDO (ldo-bypass vs ldo-enabled)</a>
    24       </li>
    25       <li>
    26         <a href="#Peripherals">Peripherals</a>
    27       </li>
    28       <li>
    29         <a href="#DVFS">DVFS</a>
    30       </li>
    31       <li>
    32         <a href="#ReducingCores">Reducing Cores</a>
    33       </li>
    34     </ol>
    35   </li>
    36   <li>
    37     <a href="#PowerProtection"><b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b> Protection</a>
    38   </li>
    39 </ol>
    40 </div><p>
    41 </p>
    42 <h1 id="Concept">Concept</h1>
    43 <p>
    44 A question we typically receive deals with <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> consumption of our product. Usually, these questions deal with <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> differentiating between <a class="ext-link" href="http://www.gateworks.com/product#ventana"><span class="icon">​</span>typical</a> operating <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> that we state on our <a class="ext-link" href="http://www.gateworks.com/product#ventana"><span class="icon">​</span>products page</a> and what the user is actually seeing. This page will try to detail what typical <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> usage means and our internal <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> measurements with various modes of operation and different types of hardware.
    45 </p>
    46 <h1 id="PowerMeasurements"><b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b> Measurements</h1>
    47 <p>
    48 The following "<b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b> Table" shows our results for different processor configurations for our different products. Our "typical" <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> usage comes from our standard product, processor dependent <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> usage, as seen in <a class="wiki" href="/wiki/ventana/power#processordependentpowerusage">this section below</a>. The <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> differences between our BSP's is due to the fact that some drivers do not exist in one, and do in the other. Because of this, the BSP with more driver support has the ability to turn off certain components and save <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> that the other cannot.
    49 </p>
    50 <h2 id="ProcessorDependentPowerUsage">Processor Dependent <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b> Usage</h2>
    51 <p>
    52 Each "delta" is based on our standard product at a linux prompt with the vendor kernel using the <strong>Yocto 1.8</strong> BSP, which is <strong>bolded</strong> in the table below. To calculate a <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> estimate for a particular system configuration start with the lower <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> range found in this chart and then go down to the <strong>Peripheral <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b> Table</strong> and add the <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> numbers for each of the different peripherals to these base number. Note these are general guidelines and results can vary widely depending on the software running and system setup. 
    53 </p>
    54 <p>
    55 These are <strong>approximated</strong> values. Ranges show feasible min-max overall draws.
    56 </p>
    57 <table class="wiki">
    58 <tr><th> Processor Deltas     </th><th> GW5100     </th><th> GW5200    </th><th> GW5300    </th><th> GW5400    </th><th> GW5510    </th><th> GW5520   
    59 </th></tr><tr><td> i.MX6SOLO              </td><td> -.1W         </td><td> -.1W        </td><td> -.1W        </td><td> -.42W       </td><td> <strong>1.32-3.95W</strong> </td><td> -.1W       
    60 </td></tr><tr><td> i.MX6DL                </td><td> <strong>.79-4W</strong> </td><td> <strong>2.85-4.7W</strong> </td><td> <strong>3.25-6.3W</strong> </td><td> -.32W       </td><td> +.1W        </td><td> <strong>2.23-4.8W</strong>
    61 </td></tr><tr><td> i.MX6Q                 </td><td> +.23-3W      </td><td> +.1-3.4W        </td><td> +.5-3.7W        </td><td> <strong>5.34-11.2W</strong> </td><td> +.1-3W        </td><td> +.3-3W       
    62 </td></tr></table>
    63 <p>
    64  
    65 If you wish to discuss a board with a cpu change from our standard product, please our sales department <a class="ext-link" href="http://www.gateworks.com/contact"><span class="icon">​</span>here.</a>
    66 </p>
    67 <h2 id="PeripheralPowerTable">Peripheral <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b> Table</h2>
    68 <p>
    69 The following table denotes <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> consumption based on peripheral use. The &lt;==== symbol shows that the previous value holds in this place. An 'x' means that functionality does not exist on that particular board.
    70 </p>
    71 <p>
    72 These are <strong>approximated</strong> values.
    73 </p>
    74 <table class="wiki">
    75 <tr><th> Peripheral Table       </th><th> GW5100 </th><th> GW5200 </th><th> GW5300 </th><th> GW5400 </th><th> GW5510 </th><th> GW5520 </th><th> Notes                                 
    76 </th></tr><tr><td> <a class="wiki" href="/wiki/OpenWrt">OpenWrt</a> Prompt (14.08)   </td><td> +1.1W    </td><td> +.31W    </td><td> +1.21W   </td><td> +.7W     </td><td> +.9W     </td><td> +1.07W   </td><td> Please see note <sub>1</sub>; Delta is based on above Yocto values
    77 </td></tr><tr><td> 100mbps Link             </td><td> +.11W    </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td style="text-align: center">                                       
    78 </td></tr><tr><td> 1000mbps Link            </td><td> +.50W    </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td style="text-align: center">                                       
    79 </td></tr><tr><td> 100mbps udp iperf client </td><td> +.81W    </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td style="text-align: center">                                       
    80 </td></tr><tr><td> 400mbps udp iperf client </td><td> +1.18W   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td style="text-align: center">                                       
    81 </td></tr><tr><td> OTG+4GB FLASH            </td><td> +.38W    </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> Generic 4GB Flash Drive               
    82 </td></tr><tr><td> HDMI Out                 </td><td> +.18W    </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> Please see note <sub>2</sub>                 
    83 </td></tr><tr><td> HDMI In                  </td><td> x        </td><td> x        </td><td> x        </td><td> +1W      </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> x        </td><td> Please see note <sub>3</sub>                 
    84 </td></tr><tr><td> HDMI <tt>In/Out</tt>        </td><td> x        </td><td> x        </td><td> x        </td><td> +1.3W    </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> x        </td><td> Please see note <sub>4</sub>                 
    85 </td></tr><tr><td> LVDS 0%                  </td><td> x        </td><td> +.88W    </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> x        </td><td> x        </td><td> LVDS screen is connected, but blanked 
    86 </td></tr><tr><td> LVDS Out (50%)           </td><td> x        </td><td> +1.85W   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> x        </td><td> x        </td><td> Please see note <sub>2</sub>                 
    87 </td></tr><tr><td> CVBS In                  </td><td> +.34W    </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> x        </td><td> x        </td><td> Please see note <sub>3</sub>                 
    88 </td></tr><tr><td> CVBS <tt>In/Out</tt>        </td><td> +.64W    </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> x        </td><td> x        </td><td> Please see note <sub>4</sub>                 
    89 </td></tr><tr><td> CPU Active               </td><td> +1.62W   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> Please see note <sub>5</sub>                 
    90 </td></tr><tr><td> GPU Active               </td><td> +1.03W   </td><td> +1.41W   </td><td> +1.5W    </td><td> +2.4W    </td><td> +.95W    </td><td> +1.01W   </td><td> Please see note <sub>6</sub>                 
    91 </td></tr><tr><td> VPU Active               </td><td> +.55W    </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> &lt;=====   </td><td> Please see note <sub>7</sub>                 
    92 </td></tr><tr><td> Board Fully Stressed     </td><td> +3.2W    </td><td> +1.86W   </td><td> +3.06W   </td><td> +5.86W   </td><td> +2.63W   </td><td> +2.58W   </td><td> Please see note <sub>8</sub>                 
    93 </td></tr></table>
    94 <p>
    95 <sub>1 Note that the GW5400 has the most components and thus has higher <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> cost compared to GW5300 etc since <a class="wiki" href="/wiki/OpenWrt">OpenWrt</a> currently doesn't have driver support for all components on the board</sub><br />
    96 <sub>2 gst-launch videotestsrc pattern=0 ! mfw_v4lsink device=/dev/video16</sub><br />
    97 <sub>3 gst-launch tvsrc device=/dev/video0 ! fakesink</sub><br />
    98 <sub>4 gst-launch tvsrc device=/dev/video0 ! mfw_v4lsink device=/dev/video16</sub><br />
    99 <sub>5 stress --io 32 --cpu 32 </sub><br />
    100 <sub>6 export DISPLAY=:0.0; /opt/fsl-gpu-sdk/GLES2/S08_EnvironmentMappingRefraction/S08_EnvironmentMappingRefraction_X11</sub><br />
    101 <sub>7 gst-launch-1.0 videotestsrc ! imxvpuenc_h264 ! queue ! imxvpudec ! fakesink</sub><br />
    102 <sub>8 Used multiple instances of notes 5,6,7 to reach max current draw</sub><br />
    103 </p>
    104 <p>
    105 For example, to estimate the <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> range for a GW5100 with an i.MX6DL Processor with Yocto BSP, using 1000mbps link with CVBS In, the estimated <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> usage would be 0.79W + .5W + .34W = 1.63W at the low end and then add 3.2W to this number if maximally stressed = 4.83W
    106 </p>
    107 <p>
    108 <span class="wikianchor" id="power-reduction"></span>
    109 </p>
    110 <h1 id="HowtoReducePower">How to Reduce <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b></h1>
    111 <p>
    112 Reducing <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> is a very complex topic and widely variable.
    113 </p>
    114 <p>
     1[[PageOutline]]
     2
     3= Concept =
     4A question we typically receive deals with power consumption of our product. Usually, these questions deal with power differentiating between typical operating power that we state on our ​[http://www.gateworks.com/product#ventana products page] and what the user is actually seeing. This page will try to detail what typical power usage means and our internal power measurements with various modes of operation and different types of hardware.
     5
     6= Power Measurements =
     7The following "Power Table" shows our results for different processor configurations for our different products. Our "typical" power usage comes from our standard product, processor dependent power usage, as seen in [wiki:ventana/power#processordependentpowerusage this section below]. The power differences between our BSP's is due to the fact that some drivers do not exist in one, and do in the other. Because of this, the BSP with more driver support has the ability to turn off certain components and save power that the other cannot.
     8
     9== Processor Dependent Power Usage ==
     10Each "delta" is based on our standard product at a linux prompt with the vendor kernel using the Yocto 1.8 BSP, which is **bolded** in the table below. To calculate a power estimate for a particular system configuration start with the lower power range found in this chart and then go down to the Peripheral Power Table and add the power numbers for each of the different peripherals to these base number. Note these are general guidelines and results can vary widely depending on the software running and system setup.
     11
     12These are **approximated** values. Ranges show feasible min-max overall draws.
     13||= Processor Deltas =||= GW5100 =||= GW5200 =||= GW5300 =||= GW5400 =||= GW5510 =||= GW5520 ||
     14|| i.MX6SOLO || -.1W  || -.1W     || -.1W     || -.42W    || **1.32-3.95W** || -.1W ||
     15|| i.MX6DL   || **.79-4W** || **2.85-4.7W** || **3.25-6.3W** || -.32W || +.1W || **2.23-4.8W** ||
     16|| i.MX6Q    || +.23-3W || +.1-3.4W || +.5-3.7W || **5.34-11.2W** || +.1-3W || +.3-3W ||
     17
     18If you wish to discuss a board with a cpu change from our standard product, please our sales department ​here.
     19
     20== Peripheral Power Table ==
     21The following table denotes power consumption based on peripheral use. The <==== symbol shows that the previous value holds in this place. An 'x' means that functionality does not exist on that particular board.
     22
     23These are **approximated** values.
     24||= Peripheral Table =||= GW5100 =||= GW5200 =||= GW5300 =||= GW5400 =||= GW5510 =||= GW5520 =||= Notes ||
     25|| OpenWrt Prompt (14.08) || +1.1W || +.31W || +1.21W || +.7W || +.9W || +1.07W || Please see note 1; Delta is based on above Yocto values ||
     26|| 100mbps Link || +.11W || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || ||
     27|| 1000mbps Link || +.50W || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || ||
     28|| 100mbps udp iperf client || +.81W || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || ||
     29|| 400mbps udp iperf client || +1.18W || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || ||
     30|| OTG+4GB FLASH || +.38W || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || Generic 4GB Flash Drive ||
     31|| HDMI Out || +.18W || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || Please see note 2 ||
     32|| HDMI In ||  x   ||  x   ||  x  || +1W || <=====  ||  x  || Please see note 3 ||
     33|| HDMI In / Out ||  x  ||  x  || x   || +1.3W || <===== ||  x  || Please see note 4 ||
     34|| LVDS 0% ||  x  || +.88W || <===== || <===== ||  x  ||  x  || LVDS screen is connected, but blanked ||
     35|| LVDS Out (50%) ||  x  || +1.85W  || <===== || <===== ||  x  ||  x  || Please see note 2 ||
     36|| CVBS In || +.34W || <===== || <===== || <===== ||  x  ||  x  || Please see note 3 ||
     37|| CVBS In / Out || +.64W || <===== || <===== || <===== ||  x  ||  x  || Please see note 4 ||
     38|| CPU Active || +1.62W || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || Please see note 5 ||
     39|| GPU Active || +1.03W || +1.41W || +1.5W || +2.4W || +.95W || +1.01W || Please see note 6 ||
     40|| VPU Active || +.55W || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || <===== || Please see note 7 ||
     41|| Board Fully Stressed || +3.2W || +1.86W || +3.06W || +5.86W || +2.63W || +2.58W || Please see note 8 ||
     421.  Note that the GW5400 has the most components and thus has higher power cost compared to GW5300 etc since OpenWrt currently doesn't have driver support for all components on the board
     432.  gst-launch videotestsrc pattern=0 ! mfw_v4lsink device=/dev/video16
     443.  gst-launch tvsrc device=/dev/video0 ! fakesink
     454.  gst-launch tvsrc device=/dev/video0 ! mfw_v4lsink device=/dev/video16
     465.  stress --io 32 --cpu 32
     476.  export DISPLAY=:0.0; /opt/fsl-gpu-sdk/GLES2/S08_EnvironmentMappingRefraction/S08_EnvironmentMappingRefraction_X11
     487.  gst-launch-1.0 videotestsrc ! imxvpuenc_h264 ! queue ! imxvpudec ! fakesink
     498.  Used multiple instances of notes 5,6,7 to reach max current draw
     50
     51For example, to estimate the power range for a GW5100 with an i.MX6DL Processor with Yocto BSP, using 1000mbps link with CVBS In, the estimated power usage would be 0.79W + .5W + .34W = 1.63W at the low end and then add 3.2W to this number if maximally stressed = 4.83W
     52
     53= How to Reduce Power =
     54Reducing power is a very complex topic and widely variable.
     55
    11556Freescale has published documents on this topic at the following links:
    116 </p>
    117 <ul><li>i.MX6 Solo <a class="ext-link" href="http://cache.freescale.com/files/32bit/doc/app_note/AN4715.pdf"><span class="icon">​</span>http://cache.freescale.com/files/32bit/doc/app_note/AN4715.pdf</a>
    118 </li><li>i.MX6 Dual/Quad <a class="ext-link" href="http://cache.freescale.com/files/32bit/doc/app_note/AN4509.pdf"><span class="icon">​</span>http://cache.freescale.com/files/32bit/doc/app_note/AN4509.pdf</a>
    119 </li></ul><h2 id="IMX6internalLDOldo-bypassvsldo-enabled">IMX6 internal LDO (ldo-bypass vs ldo-enabled)</h2>
    120 <p>
    121 The IMX6 processor has several internal low dropout (LDO) regulators. Two of these regulate the VDD_ARM (<b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> to the ARM cores) and VDD_SOC (<b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> to everything else with the exception of the VPU and GPU). The voltage input to these LDO's comes from the <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b> Management IC (PMIC).
    122 </p>
    123 <p>
    124 Based on these LDO's there are two modes of <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> operation that you can run the IMX6 in on Gateworks <b style="color:#000;background:#ffff66">Ventana</b> boards:
    125 </p>
    126 <ul><li>ldo-enabled: VDD_ARM and VDD_SOC are regulated by the internal LDO's and the PMIC rails are not changed:
    127 <ul><li>results in the least amount of ripple on the VDD_SOC and VDD_ARM rails
    128 </li><li>at a cost of efficiency (switching regulators are more efficient) and thermal <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> (if the LDO's are regulating they are producing heat in/at the processor)
    129 </li><li>increases lifetime of the IMX6 SoC due to voltage setpoints being lower within the processor
    130 </li></ul></li><li>ldo-bypass: VDD_ARM and VDD_SOC are regulated by the PMIC switching regulators and the internal LDO's are bypassed (their FET's are wide-open):
    131 <ul><li>results in more ripple on the VDD_SOC and VDD_ARM rails (switching regulators produce more ripple than LDO's)
    132 </li><li>efficiency is increased and overall board <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> consumption is decreased
    133 </li><li>decreases lifetime of the IMX6 SoC due to voltage setpoints being at least 35mV higher within the processor to account for tolerences in the PMIC
    134 </li><li>some heat dissipation is moved from the IMX6 to the PMIC
    135 </li></ul></li></ul><p>
    136 Gateworks has performed extensive testing on the various <b style="color:#000;background:#ffff66">Ventana</b> boards and in general has found the following:
    137 </p>
    138 <ul><li>the <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> reduction of using ldo-bypass mode is negligible in many use cases. Only when we would purposely maximize <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> utilization by stressing the IMX6 would we see differences between the modes. In the heaviest loading situation we realized anywhere from 500mW to 1000mW of savings in ldo-bypass mode
    139 </li><li>the temperature change of the IMX6 is negligible. Only when we would purposely maximize <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> utilization by stressing the IMX6 would we see differences between the modes. In the heaviest loading situation we realized about 1 degree C of difference in CPU temperature (ldo-bypass being appx 1C cooler than ldo-enabled)
    140 </li></ul><p>
     57* i.MX6 Solo: ​http://cache.freescale.com/files/32bit/doc/app_note/AN4715.pdf
     58* i.MX6 Dual / Quad: ​http://cache.freescale.com/files/32bit/doc/app_note/AN4509.pdf
     59
     60== IMX6 internal LDO (ldo-bypass vs ldo-enabled) ==
     61The IMX6 processor has several internal low dropout (LDO) regulators. Two of these regulate the VDD_ARM (power to the ARM cores) and VDD_SOC (power to everything else with the exception of the VPU and GPU). The voltage input to these LDO's comes from the Power Management IC (PMIC).
     62
     63Based on these LDO's there are two modes of power operation that you can run the IMX6 in on Gateworks Ventana boards:
     64 * ldo-enabled: VDD_ARM and VDD_SOC are regulated by the internal LDO's and the PMIC rails are not changed:
     65  - results in the least amount of ripple on the VDD_SOC and VDD_ARM rails
     66  - at a cost of efficiency (switching regulators are more efficient) and thermal power (if the LDO's are regulating they are producing heat in/at the processor)
     67  - increases lifetime of the IMX6 SoC due to voltage setpoints being lower within the processor
     68 * ldo-bypass: VDD_ARM and VDD_SOC are regulated by the PMIC switching regulators and the internal LDO's are bypassed (their FET's are wide-open):
     69  - results in more ripple on the VDD_SOC and VDD_ARM rails (switching regulators produce more ripple than LDO's)
     70  - efficiency is increased and overall board power consumption is decreased
     71  - decreases lifetime of the IMX6 SoC due to voltage setpoints being at least 35mV higher within the processor to account for tolerences in the PMIC
     72  - some heat dissipation is moved from the IMX6 to the PMIC
     73
     74Gateworks has performed extensive testing on the various Ventana boards and in general has found the following:
     75 * the power reduction of using ldo-bypass mode is negligible in many use cases. Only when we would purposely maximize power utilization by stressing the IMX6 would we see differences between the modes. In the heaviest loading situation we realized anywhere from 500mW to 1000mW of savings in ldo-bypass mode
     76 * the temperature change of the IMX6 is negligible. Only when we would purposely maximize power utilization by stressing the IMX6 would we see differences between the modes. In the heaviest loading situation we realized about 1 degree C of difference in CPU temperature (ldo-bypass being appx 1C cooler than ldo-enabled)
     77
    14178For IMX6 SoC longevity information of ldo-bypass vs ldo-enabled please see the following NXP documents:
    142 </p>
    143 <ul><li><a class="ext-link" href="http://www.nxp.com/files/32bit/doc/app_note/AN4724.pdf"><span class="icon">​</span>i.MX 6Dual/6Quad Product Lifetime Usage Estimates</a>
    144 </li><li><a class="ext-link" href="http://www.nxp.com/files/32bit/doc/app_note/AN4725.pdf"><span class="icon">​</span>i.MX 6Solo/6DualLite Product Lifetime Usage Estimates</a>
    145 </li></ul><p>
    146 The Gateworks bootloader will determine if a kernel has ldo-bypass capability by examining its device-tree carefully prior to jumping to the Linux kernel and will by default (in our current bootloader and BSP's) boot in ldo-enabled mode. The most recent bootloader does have the ability to alter compatible device-tree's in order to boot in ldo-bypass mode if the 'ldobypass' env variable is set to 1. If users wish to run in ldo-bypass mode it is advised that they perform their own stability testing. Users should only consider ldo-bypass mode if they are stretching the limits in <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> consumption and/or thermal <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b>.
    147 </p>
    148 <p>
     79 * [http://www.nxp.com/files/32bit/doc/app_note/AN4724.pdf ​i.MX 6Dual/6Quad Product Lifetime Usage Estimates]
     80 * [http://www.nxp.com/files/32bit/doc/app_note/AN4725.pdf i.MX 6Solo/6DualLite Product Lifetime Usage Estimates]
     81
     82The Gateworks bootloader will determine if a kernel has ldo-bypass capability by examining its device-tree carefully prior to jumping to the Linux kernel and will by default (in our current bootloader and BSP's) boot in ldo-enabled mode. The most recent bootloader does have the ability to alter compatible device-tree's in order to boot in ldo-bypass mode if the 'ldobypass' env variable is set to 1. If users wish to run in ldo-bypass mode it is advised that they perform their own stability testing. Users should only consider ldo-bypass mode if they are stretching the limits in power consumption and/or thermal power.
     83
    14984Important notes:
    150 </p>
    151 <ul><li>if running an IMX6 at 1.2GHz the Freescale datasheet states you must run in ldo-enabled mode (as the processor at that frequency is highly susceptible to switching noise). <strong>Note that current Gateworks <b style="color:#000;background:#ffff66">Ventana</b> boards do not operate at 1.2GHz as those are consumer grade processors</strong>
    152 </li><li>any <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> efficiency or thermal benefits are negligible at lower loads and will increase depending on the overall IMX6 load
    153 </li><li>ldo-bypass mode is not supported yet in mainline-linux - it is only supported in the downstream vendor kernels. In order to support it, you must have a PMIC that can vary its VDD_ARM and VDD_SOC rails (which <b style="color:#000;background:#ffff66">Ventana</b> boards have), a PMIC driver, configure the arm and soc regulators in the kernel device-tree to the pmic regulators instead of the IMX anatop regulators, and configure the IMX internal LDO's to be fully open.
    154 </li><li>We have chosen to default to using ldo-enabled in our BSP's because we feel it provides cleaner <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> and overall reliability margin in the extended temperature range and environments that our customers use our products in.
    155 </li></ul><h2 id="Peripherals">Peripherals</h2>
    156 <p>
    157 The table above shows the <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> draw for many of the peripherals. By not using these, the <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> is thus reduced. Removing these peripherals on custom board is an option.
    158 </p>
    159 <h2 id="DVFS">DVFS</h2>
    160 <p>
    161 DVFS can reduce the frequency of the processor and thus lower the <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b>.
    162 </p>
    163 <p>
    164 See more about <a class="wiki" href="/wiki/DVFS">Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling</a>
    165 </p>
    166 <h2 id="ReducingCores">Reducing Cores</h2>
    167 <p>
     85 * if running an IMX6 at 1.2GHz the Freescale datasheet states you must run in ldo-enabled mode (as the processor at that frequency is highly susceptible to switching noise). **Note that current Gateworks Ventana boards do not operate at 1.2GHz as those are consumer grade processors**
     86 * any power efficiency or thermal benefits are negligible at lower loads and will increase depending on the overall IMX6 load
     87 * ldo-bypass mode is not supported yet in mainline-linux - it is only supported in the downstream vendor kernels. In order to support it, you must have a PMIC that can vary its VDD_ARM and VDD_SOC rails (which Ventana boards have), a PMIC driver, configure the arm and soc regulators in the kernel device-tree to the pmic regulators instead of the IMX anatop regulators, and configure the IMX internal LDO's to be fully open.
     88 * We have chosen to default to using ldo-enabled in our BSP's because we feel it provides cleaner power and overall reliability margin in the extended temperature range and environments that our customers use our products in.
     89
     90
     91== Peripherals ==
     92The table above shows the power draw for many of the peripherals. By not using these, the power is thus reduced. Removing these peripherals on custom board is an option.
     93
     94== DVFS ==
     95Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) can reduce the frequency of the processor and thus lower the power.
     96
     97See more about [wiki:DVFS Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling]
     98
     99== Reducing Cores ==
    168100It is possible to schedule processes to specific cores on the processor. This load balancing can be helpful.
    169 </p>
    170 <p>
    171 However, you cannot actually 'turn off' a core. Even if a process is not running on a core, the core is still powered up.
    172 </p>
    173 <h1 id="PowerProtection"><b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">Power</b> Protection</h1>
    174 <p>
    175 <strong>Note: below applies to <b style="color:#000;background:#ffff66">Ventana</b> boards except GW55xx and GW51xx</strong>
    176 </p>
    177 <p>
    178 For the <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> input we have an input TVS for protection.
    179 </p>
    180 <p>
    181 Here is the datasheet for the part (SMAJ58A is the part we use):
    182  
    183 <a class="ext-link" href="http://www.littelfuse.com/~/media/electronics/datasheets/tvs_diodes/littelfuse_tvs_diode_smaj_datasheet.pdf.pdf"><span class="icon">​</span>Link Here</a>
    184 </p>
    185 <p>
    186 The actual DC/DC is rated to 100V input and the FETs to 80V so we have plenty of headroom and have not had any issues with customers running the boards off auto <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b>. We also have a series diode in the <b style="color:#000;background:#66ffff">power</b> path which protects against reverse voltage dumps. 
    187 </p>
    188 }}}
     101
     102However, you cannot actually 'turn off' a core. Even if a process is not running on a core, the core is still powered up.
     103
     104= Power Protection =
     105**Note: below applies to Ventana boards except GW55xx and GW51xx**
     106
     107For the power input we have an input TVS for protection.
     108
     109Here is the datasheet for the part (SMAJ58A is the part we use): [http://www.littelfuse.com/~/media/electronics/datasheets/tvs_diodes/littelfuse_tvs_diode_smaj_datasheet.pdf.pdf ​Link Here]
     110
     111The actual DC/DC is rated to 100V input and the FETs to 80V so we have plenty of headroom and have not had any issues with customers running the boards off auto power. We also have a series diode in the power path which protects against reverse voltage dumps.