wiki:expansion/gw16146

GW16146 miniPCIe 802.11ah Radio Module

The GW16146 is a miniPCIe form factor 802.11ah radio consisting of:

The GW16146 differs from the Newracom NRC7292 EVK in the following ways:

  • Sits behind a FT232H USB to SPI bridge
  • Uses software polling instead of an interrupt
  • Uses the Silex SX-NEWAH radio containing the NRC7292 but RF tuned for US operation

View the GW16146 Product Page for pricing and specifications

802.11ah Showcase

View the Gateworks 802.11ah Showcase to learn more about 802.11ah

Features

The Silex SX-NEWAH module featuring the Newracom 7292 features:

  • IEEE 802.11ah operating in Sub 1GHz license-exempt band
    • offers a much greater range over 2.5GHz and 5GHz technologies
    • offers a much higher data rate than proprietary Low-Power Wide-Area (LPWA) technologies such as LoRa? and Sigfox
    • full IP stack lowers barrier to entry over proprietary Low-Power Wide-Area (LPWA) technologies such as LoRa? and Sigfox
  • latest generation Wi-Fi security - WPA3
  • channel widths: 1/2/4MHz channel widths with optional short guard interval (SGI) (yield 150Kbps to 15Mbps PHY throughput at the PHY layer but due to USB-to-SPI and driver polling maxes out at about 3mbps)
  • streams: 1 spatial stream
  • data rates: MCS0-MCS7, MCS10 (1MHz only)
  • country: US support only
  • modes: infrastructure, monitor, 802.11s mesh
  • auth / encryption: open, WPA2-PSK(AES), WPA3-OWE, WPA3-SAE
  • OFDM modulation
  • AES-CCMP encryption
  • 750 to 950MHz frequency band
  • TX gain range: 30dB
  • RX noise figure: <4dB
  • Max input level: -10dBm
  • dual embedded ARM Cortex-M0 and Cortex-M3 processor
  • SPI host interface
  • only 1 GW16146 is supported on a give system; as there is no concrete way to associate SPI bus number with particular device. The bus number assignment relies on USB

bus scan and device probe sequence

RF transmitter specifications:

BW Freq (MHz) Data Rates (MCS) TX Power (min/typ/max dBm)
1MHz 903.5 ~ 915.5 0,1,2,3,4,10 20.5 / 23.0 / 25.5
5 19.5 / 22.0 / 24.5
6 15.5 / 18.0 / 20.5
7 11.5 / 14.0 / 16.5
916.5 ~ 926.5 0,1,2,3,4,10 19.5 / 22.0 / 24.5
5 18.5 / 21.0 / 23.5
6 15.5 / 18.0 / 20.5
7 11.5 / 14.0 / 16.5
2MHz 905 ~ 917 0,1,2,3,4 20.5 / 22.0 / 24.5
5 19.5 / 21.0 / 23.5
6 12.5 / 18.0 / 20.5
7 11.5 / 14.0 / 16.5
9195 ~ 925 0,1,2,3,4 19.5 / 22.0 / 24.5
6 12.5 / 15.0 / 17.5
7 11.5 / 14.0 / 16.5
4MHz 910 ~ 922 0,1,2,3,4,5 18.5 / 21.0 / 23.5
6 12.5 / 15.0 / 17.5
7 11.5 / 14.0 / 16.5

Modulation and coding schemes (for 1 spatial stream 1/2/4MHz channels):

MCS index Modulation and coding rate 1MHz (mbps) 2MHz (mbps) 4MHz (mbps)
long GI short GI long GI short GI long GI short GI
0 BPSK 1/2 0.3 0.33 0.65 0.72 1.35 1.5
1 QPSK 1/2 0.6 0.67 1.3 1.44 2.7 3.0
2 QPSK 3/4 0.9 1.0 1.95 2.17 4.05 4.5
3 16-QAM 1/2 1.2 1.33 2.6 2.89 5.4 6.0
4 16-QAM 3/4 1.8 2.0 3.9 4.33 8.1 9.0
5 64-QAM 2/3 2.4 2.67 5.2 5.78 10.8 12.0
6 64-QAM 3/4 2.7 3.0 5.85 6.5 12.2 13.5
7 64-QAM 5/6 3.0 3.34 6.5 7.22 13.5 15.0
10 BPSK 1/2 x 2 0.15 0.17 - - - -
  • see rate table at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11ah
  • these are maximum PHY data rates - actual throughput depends also on packet loss and most importantly SPI and USB bus overhead and latency which effectively reduces throughput to a max of around 4.5mbps.

RF receiver specifications:

BW Modulation Data Rates Rx Minimum Sensitivity (typ/max dBm)
1MHz BPSK MCS10 -104 / -98
BPSK MCS0 -102 / -95
QPSK MCS1 -100 / -92
QPSK MCS2 -95 / -90
16 QAM MCS3 -92 / -87
16 QAM MCS4 -88 / -83
64 QAM MCS5 -89 / -79
64 QAM MCS6 -86 / -78
64 QAM MCS7 -85 / -77
2MHz BPSK MCS0 -96 / -92
QPSK MCS1 -96 / -89
QPSK MCS2 -94 / -87
16 QAM MCS3 -92 / -84
16 QAM MCS4 -88 / -80
64 QAM MCS5 -84 / -76
64 QAM MCS6 -83 / -75
64 QAM MCS7 -81 / -74
4MHz BPSK MCS0 -92 / -89
QPSK MCS1 -92 / -86
QPSK MCS2 -92 / -84
16 QAM MCS3 -88 / -81
16 QAM MCS4 -85 / -77
64 QAM MCS5 -81 / -73
64 QAM MCS6 -80 / -72
64 QAM MCS7 -78 / -71

Channel Mapping (US):

  • The SX-NEWAH Channel Mapping application note from Silex states the frequency range is 903.5 MHz to 926.5 MHz supporting channel widths of 1MHz, 2MHz, or 4MHz. The channel map (differs a bit from Newracom's info due to US) is:
  • 1 MHz Wide channel mappings:
Wi-Fi channel setting Sub 1 GHz frequency [MHz]
3 903.5
5 904.5
7 905.5
9 906.5
11 907.5
36 908.5
37 909.5
38 910.5
39 911.5
40 912.5
41 913.5
42 914.5
43 915.5
44 916.5
45 917.5
46 918.5
47 919.5
48 920.5
149 921.5
150 922.5
151 923.5
152 924.5
100 1 925.5
104 1 926.5
  1. use of these channels is not recommended as these are Clear Access Channels (CAC) which when used will takea full 60 seconds before they are operational
  • 2 MHz Wide channel mappings:
Wi-Fi channel setting Sub 1 GHz frequency [MHz]
6 905
10 907
153 909
154 911
155 913
156 915
157 917
158 919
159 921
160 923
161 925
  • 4 MHz Wide channel mappings:
Wi-Fi channel setting Sub 1 GHz frequency [MHz]
162 910
163 914
164 918
165 922

Antenna

This radio requires an antenna properly tuned for the target frequency. Gateworks sells a 900 MHz antenna, the GW10124. Purchase the GW10124 Note antenna adapter cable not included

Documentation

There are a number of documents in the Newracom nrc7292 driver repository which may prove useful:

Other references:

Software

Software support consists of the following items:

  • Linux kernel driver for FT232H as a USB to SPI bridge
  • Linux kernel driver for the NRC7292 SPI Radio chip
  • Firmware files required for NRC7292 driver in /lib/firmware: nrc7292_cspi.bin and nrc7292_bd.dat
  • Userspace cli_app application to performing miscellaneous configuration via Netlink to the NRC7292 driver

The above software support is present in the following:

  • Venice Ubuntu Focal (20.04) pre-built images
  • Newport Ubuntu Focal (20.04) pre-built images.
  • Ventana Ubuntu Focal (20.04) pre-built images

OpenWRT repository link for NRC7292:

FT232H USB to SPI bridge

The FT232H features an multi-protocol engine that can be used for UART, JTAG, SPI among perhaps other things.

Gateworks has programmed the USB VID:PID to 0x2beb:0x0146 which binds to the out-of-tree Linux kernel spi-ft232h driver.

When a GW16146 is found on the USB bus a SPI master host controller will be registered with the Linux kernel which you can see in /sys/class/spi_master. Note that various SoC's used for Gateworks boards also have built-in SPI controllers so you will need to look at the directory in /sys/class/spi_master to see what drivers each spi controller is bound to to find the right one.

Examples:

  • show spi master controllers
    ls /sys/class/spi_master/
    # spi1  spi3
    
  • show drivers providing each master:
    ls -l /sys/class/spi_master/
    #total 0
    #lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Aug 27 17:59 spi1 -> ../../devices/platform/soc@0/soc@0:bus@30800000/30830000.spi/spi_master/spi1
    #lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Aug 27 17:59 spi3 -> ../../devices/platform/soc@0/soc@0:bus@32c00000/32e50000.usb/ci_hdrc.1/usb2/2-1/2-1.3/2-1.3:1.0/spi-ft232h.0/spi_master/spi3
    
    for i in $(ls /sys/class/spi_master/); do echo $i:$(basename $(readlink /sys/class/spi_master/$i/device)); done
    # spi1:30830000.spi
    # spi3:spi-ft232h.0
    
  • find spi master bound to spi-ft232h:
    for i in $(ls /sys/class/spi_master/); do if [ "$(basename $(readlink /sys/class/spi_master/$i/device))" == "spi-ft232h.0" ]; then echo $i; fi; done
    # spi3
    
  • assign the bus number of the first spi-ft232h bus to a var:
    BUSNO=$(for i in $(ls /sys/class/spi_master/); do if [ "$(basename $(readlink /sys/class/spi_master/$i/device))" == "spi-ft232h.0" ]; then echo $i | sed 's/[^0-9]*//g'; fi; done)
    echo $BUSNO
    #3
    

Note that the SPI bus frequency can range from 450KHz to 30Mhz in 30MHz/n divisions where n is 1 to 65535 thus 30, 15, 10, 7.5, 6, 3.75MHz and so on. Invalid values will round up to the next highest freq. The frequency will be requested from the nrc.ko driver via the hifspeed kernel param (see below)

Building:

  • The driver compiles a single module 'spi-ft232h.ko' and can be built out-of-tree by assigning KDIR to the directory of your kernel:
    KDIR=/usr/src/venice/bsp/linux make
    

NRC7292 kernel driver

The Silex SX-NEWAH module on the GW16146 has a Newracom NRC7292 and thus is mostly supported by Newracom's open-source driver. However, the Newracom driver assumes a SoC GPIO is used for SPI IRQ and in the case of the GW16146 this does not exist. Therefore a SPI polling feature was added to the driver therefore Gateworks has its own nrc7292 driver.

There is a large set of kernel params (which you can see via 'modinfo nrc.ko') but for our purposes the following are needed:

  • fw_name - firmware file from /lib/firmware
  • bd_name - Board data file from /lib/firmware
  • hifspeed - port speed in MHz (recommend 30000000 for 30MHz; available frequencies are 450KHz to 30Mhz in 30MHz/n divisions where n is 1 to 65535 thus 30, 15, 10, 7.5, 6, 3.75MHz and so on. Invalid values will round up to the next highest freq)
  • spi_bus_num - SPI bus number (find this dynamically from /sys/class/spi_master)
  • spi_cs_num - SPI chip select (must be 0 for FTDI USB_SPI bridge)
  • spi_polling_interval - SPI polling interval in ms (recommend 5ms)

The following steps have been condensed into a downloadable script.

You must determine the SPI bus at runtime which can be done via:

BUSNO=$(for i in $(ls /sys/class/spi_master/); do if [ "$(basename $(readlink /sys/class/spi_master/$i/device))" == "spi-ft232h.0" ]; then echo $i | sed 's/[^0-9]*//g'; fi; done)
echo $BUSNO

Now the module can be loaded as such:

modprobe nrc fw_name=nrc7292_cspi.bin bd_name=nrc7292_bd.dat spi_bus_num=$BUSNO spi_polling_interval=5 hifspeed=30000000

After several seconds due to the timing of firmware loading you should see a new wlan device under /sys/class/net. To find the correct wlan interface that is bound to the NRC7292 driver:

WLAN="$(for i in $(ls -d /sys/class/net/wlan* 2>/dev/null); do if [ "$(basename $(readlink $i/device))" == "nrc80211" ]; then basename $i; fi; done)"
echo $WLAN
# wlan0

After bringing up the interface you can perform more configuration on it via the 'cli_app' (see below)

ifconfig $WLAN up

Building:

  • The driver compiles a single module 'nrc.ko' and can be built out-of-tree by assigning KDIR to the directory of your kernel:
    KDIR=/usr/src/venice/bsp/linux make
    
  • kernel requirements: CONFIG_CRYPTO_CCM, CONFIG_CRYPTO_GCM, CONFIG_CRYPTO_SEQIV, CONFIG_CRYPTO_CBC, CONFIG_CRYPTO_CTR, CONFIG_CRYPTO_ECB, CONFIG_CRYPTO_AES

cli_app

There is a 'cli_app' that is part of the driver code which communicates with the driver via the Netlink generic socket family API. Netlink is a Linux kernel interface used for inter-process communication between kernel and userspace similar to unix domain sockets designed for transferring miscellaneous networking information between kernel space and userspace processes. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netlink for details.

The cli_app facilitates setting misc details that are not handled via iw. The app can be used in interactive mode by running without args or by sending commands.

Example usage showing useful features:

  • interactive mode
    # ./cli_app
    ===================================================
         Newracom Command Line Application (2.4)      
    ===================================================
    NRC> help
    ===================================================================================================
     help                                                   :show CLI tree
     exit                                                   :exit program
     show version                                           :show version
     show config [vif_id]                                   :show configuration
     show edca                                              :show EDCA parameters
     show uinfo [vif_id]                                    :show UMAC information
     show ampdu [clear]                                     :show/clear AMPDU count
     show signal [start|stop] [interval] [number]           :show rssi/snr
     show maxagg                                            :show max aggregation
     show duty                                              :show duty cycle
     show autotxgain                                        :show autotxgain
     show cal_use                                           :show cal_use
     show bdf_use                                           :show board data use
     show recovery stats                                    :show recovery
     show detection stats                                   :show detection
     show temp                                              :show temp
     show wakeup_pin                                        :show wakeup pin configuration
     show wakeup_source                                     :show wakeup source configuration
     show stats simple_rx                                   :show received packet information
     show mac clear                                         :clear TX/RX Statistics
     show mac tx stats                                      :show TX Statistics
     show mac tx clear                                      :clear TX Statistics
     show mac rx stats                                      :show RX Statistics
     show mac rx clear                                      :clear RX Statistics
     set gi <short|long|auto>                               :set guard interval
     set maxagg <AC(0-3)> <Max(0-13,0:off)> {size:default=0}:set aggregation
     set config <ack[0,1]> <agg[0,1]> <mcs>                 :set ack, aggregation, mcs
     set rc <on|off> [vif_id] [mode]                        :set rate control
     set duty <on|off> {duty window} {tx duration} {exclude mgmt[0|1]}:set duty cycle
     set cal_use <on|off>                                   :set cal_use
     set bdf_use <on|off>                                   :set board data use
     set txpwr <value(1~30)>                                :set txpwrt
     set wakeup_pin {Debounce:on|off} {PIN Number:0~31}     :set wakeup pin for deepsleep
     set wakeup_soruce rtc gpio hspi                        :set wakeup source for deepsleep
     set addba [tid] {mac address}                          :set addba tid / send addba with mac address
     set delba [tid] {mac address}                          :set delba tid / send delba with mac address
     set rts <on|off|default> <threshold> <vif_id>          :set rts on/off
     test mcs <mcs value>                                   :set mcs
     test country JP <CS time> <Blank time> or <show>       :set/show tx time control for JP(Japan)
    ===================================================================================================
    OK
    NRC> exit
    ===================================================
          Exit Newracom Command Line Application      
    ===================================================
    
  • show software/hardware version info:
    # ./cli_app show version
    Newracom Firmware Version        : 01.03.03
    gerrit/master                    : c977f
    Board Revision                   : 7292A
    OK
    
  • set use of board data for tx power levels and calibration:
    # ./cli_app set bdf_use on
    Board Data use                   : on
    OK
    
  • enable A-MPDU (frame aggregation):
    # ./cli_app set maxagg 1 8
    -------------------------------- updated aggregation ----------------------------------
    AC       : BK           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
    AC       : BE           State    : ON           Value    : 8            Size    : 0
    AC       : VI           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
    AC       : VO           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    OK
    root@focal-venice-sta:~# ./cli_app set maxagg 1 on
    -------------------------------- updated aggregation ----------------------------------
    AC       : BK           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
    AC       : BE           State    : ON           Value    : 8            Size    : 0
    AC       : VI           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
    AC       : VO           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    OK
    
  • set guard band interval to long (or short if you wish)
    # ./cli_app set gi long
    guard interval : long
    OK
    
  • enable RF calibration:
    # ./cli_app set cal_use on
    Calibration_use : on                    Country  : US
    OK
    

For more info see UG-7292-007-Command line application.pdf

Note that the interface needs to be up.

Configuration and Usage examples

  1. Loading drivers:
    1. lsusb shows GW16046 on bus with VID:0x2beb and PID=0x0146
      lsusb -d 0x2beb:0x0146
      # Bus 001 Device 003: ID 2beb:0146  
      
    2. Obtain the SPI bus number created by the spi-ft232h driver which has bound to the GW16046 via VID/PID (Note that we save this in the BUSNO env variable which will be used below)
      BUSNO="$(for i in $(ls /sys/class/spi_master/); do if [ "$(basename $(readlink /sys/class/spi_master/$i/device))" == "spi-ft232h.0" ]; then echo $i | sed 's/[^0-9]*//g'; fi; done)"
      echo $BUSNO
      # 3
      
    3. Load the NRC7292 driver providing the SPI bus number from above (we use the BUSNO env var here):
      modprobe nrc fw_name=nrc7292_cspi.bin bd_name=nrc7292_bd.dat spi_bus_num=$BUSNO # spi_polling_interval=5 hifspeed=30000000
      
      • after several seconds you should see a new wlan device under /sys/class/net
    4. obtain the wlan device that is bound to the driver (note it takes several seconds after loading the driver module for the device to get registered due to firmware loading and timing) (Note that we save this in the WLAN env variable which will be used below)
      WLAN="$(for i in $(ls -d /sys/class/net/wlan* 2>/dev/null); do if [ "$(basename $(readlink $i/device))" == "nrc80211" ]; then basename $i; fi; done)"
      echo $WLAN
      # wlan0
      
    5. bring up the interface (required for configuration below)
      ifconfig $WLAN up
      
  1. Configure miscellaneous parameters via cli_app Netlink tool
    • enable transmission power controL (TPC)
      # cli_app set bdf_use on # enable transmission power control (TPC)
      Board Data use                   : on
      OK
      
    • configure frame aggregation
      # cli_app set maxagg 1 8 # configure frame aggregation
      -------------------------------- updated aggregation ----------------------------------
      AC       : BK           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
      AC       : BE           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
      AC       : VI           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
      AC       : VO           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
      ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      OK
      # cli_app set maxagg 1 on # enable frame aggregation
      -------------------------------- updated aggregation ----------------------------------
      AC       : BK           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
      AC       : BE           State    : ON           Value    : 8            Size    : 0
      AC       : VI           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
      AC       : VO           State    : OFF          Value    : 8            Size    : 0
      ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      OK
      
      • The Access Category (BK/BE/VI/VO) are based on ToS field in an IP header:
        • BK: 0x20, 0x28, 0x38, 0x48, 0x58
        • BE: 0x00, 0x60, 0x70
        • VI: 0x88, 0x90, 0x98, 0xa0, 0xb8
        • VO: 0xc0, 0xe0
    • configure guard band interval
      # cli_app set gi long # set long guard interval
      guard interval : long
      OK
      
    • configure power calibration
      # cli_app set cal_use on # enable power calibration
      Calibration_use : on                    Country  : US
      OK
      
    • for the Command Line App usage details see UG-7292-007-Command Line Application.pdf
  1. Configure AP or STA mode:
    • Define your channel and SSID via env variables (used in scripts below)
      SSID=halow_demo
      CH=161
      PSK=12345678
      
    • Open security model:
      • AP (using WLAN/SSID/CH env variables)
        # apt install hostapd # make sure hostapd is installed
        # /etc/init.d/hostapd stop # make sure its not running
        # cat << EOF > /tmp/hostapd.conf
        ctrl_interface=/var/run/hostapd
        country_code=US
        interface=$WLAN
        ssid=$SSID
        hw_mode=a
        channel=$CH
        ieee80211h=1
        ieee80211d=1
        ieee80211n=1
        macaddr_acl=0
        driver=nl80211
        beacon_int=100
        ap_max_inactivity=16780
        EOF
        # hostapd /tmp/hostapd.conf &
        [1] 1006
        Configuration file: /tmp/hostapd.conf
        rfkill: Cannot open RFKILL control device
        wlan0: interface state UNINITIALIZED->COUNTRY_UPDATE
        Using interface wlan0 with hwaddr 84:25:3f:87:fc:b6 and ssid "halow_demo"
        wlan0: interface state COUNTRY_UPDATE->ENABLED
        wlan0: AP-ENABLED
        
      • STA (using WLAN/SSID env variables)
        # cat << EOF > /tmp/wpa_supplicant.conf
        ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
        
        country=US
        network={
            ssid="$SSID"
            scan_ssid=1
            key_mgmt=NONE
            freq_list=2412 2422 2432 2442 2452 2462 5180 5185 5190 5195 5200 5205 5210 5215 5220 5225 5230 5235 5240 5745 5750 5755 5760 5500 5520 5540 2417 2437 2457 5765 5770 5775 5780 5785 5790 5795 5800 5805 5560 2447 5810 5815 5820 5825 5580
            scan_freq=2412 2422 2432 2442 2452 2462 5180 5185 5190 5195 5200 5205 5210 5215 5220 5225 5230 5235 5240 5745 5750 5755 5760 5500 5520 5540 2417 2437 2457 5765 5770 5775 5780 5785 5790 5795 5800 5805 5560 2447 5810 5815 5820 5825 5580
        }
        
        p2p_disabled=1
        EOF
        # wpa_supplicant -i $WLAN -c /tmp/wpa_supplicant.conf &
        
    • WPA2-PSK security
      • AP (using WLAN/SSID/CH/PSK env variables)
        # cat << EOF > /tmp/hostapd.conf
        ctrl_interface=/var/run/hostapd
        country_code=US
        interface=$WLAN
        ssid=$SSID
        hw_mode=a
        channel=$CH
        ieee80211h=1
        ieee80211d=1
        ieee80211n=1
        macaddr_acl=0
        driver=nl80211
        beacon_int=100
        ap_max_inactivity=16780
        wpa=2
        wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
        wpa_pairwise=CCMP
        rsn_pairwise=CCMP
        wpa_passphrase=$PSK
        EOF
        # hostapd /tmp/hostapd.conf &
        
      • STA (using WLAN/SSID/PSK env variables)
        # cat << EOF > /tmp/wpa_supplicant.conf
        ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
         
        country=US
        update_config=1
        network={
            ssid="$SSID"
            scan_ssid=1
            proto=RSN
            key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
            pairwise=CCMP
            group=CCMP
            psk="$PSK"
            freq_list=2412 2422 2432 2442 2452 2462 5180 5185 5190 5195 5200 5205 5210 5215 5220 5225 5230 5235 5240 5745 5750 5755 5760 5500 5520 5540 2417 2437 2457 5765 5770 5775 5780 5785 5790 5795 5800 5805 5560 2447 5810 5815 5820 5825 5580
            scan_freq=2412 2422 2432 2442 2452 2462 5180 5185 5190 5195 5200 5205 5210 5215 5220 5225 5230 5235 5240 5745 5750 5755 5760 5500 5520 5540 2417 2437 2457 5765 5770 5775 5780 5785 5790 5795 5800 5805 5560 2447 5810 5815 5820 5825 5580
        }
        p2p_disabled=1
        ignore_old_scan_res=1
        EOF
        # wpa_supplicant -i $WLAN -c /tmp/wpa_supplicant.conf &
        
    • WPA3-SEA (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simultaneous_Authentication_of_Equals)
      • AP (using WLAN/SSID/PSK env variables)
        # cat << EOF > /tmp/hostapd.conf
        ctrl_interface=/var/run/hostapd
        country_code=US
        interface=$WLAN
        ssid=$SSID
        hw_mode=a
        channel=$CH
        ieee80211h=1
        ieee80211d=1
        ieee80211n=1
        ieee80211w=2
        macaddr_acl=0
        driver=nl80211
        beacon_int=100
        ap_max_inactivity=16780
        wpa=2
        wpa_key_mgmt=SAE
        wpa_pairwise=CCMP
        rsn_pairwise=CCMP
        wpa_passphrase=$PSK
        EOF
        # hostapd /tmp/hostapd.conf &
        
      • STA (using WLAN/SSID/PSK env variables)
        # cat << EOF > /tmp/wpa_supplicant.conf
        ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
        
        country=US
        update_config=1
        network={
            ssid="$SSID"
            scan_ssid=1
            proto=RSN
            key_mgmt=SAE
            pairwise=CCMP
            group=CCMP
            psk="$PSK"
            ieee80211w=2
            freq_list=2412 2422 2432 2442 2452 2462 5180 5185 5190 5195 5200 5205 5210 5215 5220 5225 5230 5235 5240 5745 5750 5755 5760 5500 5520 5540 2417 2437 2457 5765 5770 5775 5780 5785 5790 5795 5800 5805 5560 2447 5810 5815 5820 5825 5580
            scan_freq=2412 2422 2432 2442 2452 2462 5180 5185 5190 5195 5200 5205 5210 5215 5220 5225 5230 5235 5240 5745 5750 5755 5760 5500 5520 5540 2417 2437 2457 5765 5770 5775 5780 5785 5790 5795 5800 5805 5560 2447 5810 5815 5820 5825 5580
        }
        p2p_disabled=1
        ignore_old_scan_res=1
        EOF
        # wpa_supplicant -i $WLAN -c /tmp/wpa_supplicant.conf &
        
    • WPA3-OWE (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opportunistic_Wireless_Encryption)
      • AP (using WLAN/SSID/PSK env variables)
        # cat << EOF > /tmp/hostapd.conf
        ctrl_interface=/var/run/hostapd
        country_code=US
        interface=$WLAN
        ssid=$SSID
        hw_mode=a
        channel=$CH
        ieee80211h=1
        ieee80211d=1
        ieee80211n=1
        ieee80211w=2
        macaddr_acl=0
        driver=nl80211
        beacon_int=100
        ap_max_inactivity=16780
        wpa=2
        wpa_key_mgmt=OWE
        wpa_pairwise=CCMP
        rsn_pairwise=CCMP
        EOF
        # hostapd /tmp/hostapd.conf &
        
      • STA (using WLAN/SSID/PSK env variables)
        # cat << EOF > /tmp/wpa_supplicant.conf
        ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
        
        country=US
        update_config=1
        pmf=2
        network={
            ssid="$SSID"
            scan_ssid=1
            proto=RSN
            key_mgmt=OWE
            pairwise=CCMP
            group=CCMP
            psk="$PSK"
            ieee80211w=2
            freq_list=2412 2422 2432 2442 2452 2462 5180 5185 5190 5195 5200 5205 5210 5215 5220 5225 5230 5235 5240 5745 5750 5755 5760 5500 5520 5540 2417 2437 2457 5765 5770 5775 5780 5785 5790 5795 5800 5805 5560 2447 5810 5815 5820 5825 5580
            scan_freq=2412 2422 2432 2442 2452 2462 5180 5185 5190 5195 5200 5205 5210 5215 5220 5225 5230 5235 5240 5745 5750 5755 5760 5500 5520 5540 2417 2437 2457 5765 5770 5775 5780 5785 5790 5795 5800 5805 5560 2447 5810 5815 5820 5825 5580
        }
        p2p_disabled=1
        ignore_old_scan_res=1
        EOF
        # wpa_supplicant -i $WLAN -c /tmp/wpa_supplicant.conf &
        

Troubleshooting

  1. Ensure the device can be seen on the USB bus:
    # lsusb -d 0x2beb:0x0146
    Bus 001 Device 003: ID 2beb:0146  
    
  2. Ensure the spi_ft232h driver is loaded
    # lsmod | grep ft232
    spi_ft232h             24576  0
    # dmesg | grep ft232
    [    7.555554] usbcore: registered new interface driver spi_ft232h
    
  3. Ensure the spi_ft232h driver has registers a SPI bus:
    # ls -l /sys/class/spi_master/ | grep ft232h
    lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Aug 31 20:13 spi3 -> ../../devices/platform/soc@0/soc@0:bus@32c00000/32e50000.usb/ci_hdrc.1/usb1/1-1/1-1.3/1-1.3:1.0/spi-ft232h.0/spi_master/spi3
    
Last modified 3 weeks ago Last modified on 11/11/2021 12:33:02 AM

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